Southborough has the most democratic form of self-government⎯open Town Meeting. This means that at Town Meetings any registered voter may attend and has the opportunity to speak (in keeping with parliamentary procedure) and to vote. The Town Meeting must approve every penny spent by the town in the coming fiscal year as it votes individual department budgets and warrant articles presented for particular projects. Town bylaws, such as zoning or the appointment of various officials, may be added to and changed⎯amended⎯by the Town Meeting. An Annual Town Meeting must approve the budget for the coming fiscal year before any funds can be expended. Also the Annual Town Meeting must be formally concluded after dealing with all of the business represented in the warrant before an action of the meeting becomes official.

The Town Moderator presides over the meeting, maintaining order and making public all votes of the meeting. The Moderator also appoints members to various town committees: the (Finance) Advisory Committee, Department of Public Works Planning Board, and the Personnel Board which sets salaries of the town employees. Annual Town Meeting is held on the second Monday in April.